What's the difference between alias, import, require and use in Elixir?

What's the difference between alias, import, require and use in Elixir? A complete guide with use cases

Alias in Elixir

In Elixir, the module names might be quite long. As a result, it's very time consuming to use them a lot across the entire app. Such code is also rather difficult to read.

Let's take a look at this example:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication.Admin do
  defstruct [:id, :email]

  def changeset(admin, params \\ %{}) do
    # implementation is not important here
  end
end

Now, imagine you want to call changeset/2 function with Curiosum.Authentication.Admin struct as its argument. You have to use the whole module name to do that:

Curiosum.Authentication.Admin.changeset(%Curiosum.Authentication.Admin{})

The above example doesn't look good. Fortunately, we have an alias/2 macro. Its purpose is to give module an alternative name:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin, as: AdminResource

AdminResource.changeset(%AdminResource{})

That's way better. With :as option you specify the name of the alias, however, it's optional. Calling alias without :as by default uses last part of the module name which in this case is Admin:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin

Admin.changeset(%Admin{})

It's very common to skip :as option in Elixir world. After all calling alias in following way:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin, as: Admin

is the same as:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin

In real case scenario, you probably will work on a context with multiple data structures inside of it. Let's define another data structure in Curiosum.Authentication context:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication.User do
  defstruct [:id, :email]

  def changeset(user, params \\ %{}) do
    # implementation is not important here
  end
end

With two data structures defined, we want to use both of them in Curiosum.Authentication context. Of course, we also want to alias both of these:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication do
  alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin
  alias Curiosum.Authentication.User
end

There is also a nice shortcut for this use case:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication do
  alias Curiosum.Authentication.{ Admin, User }
end

If for some reason you declare an alias and don't use it, you'll see a warning:

iex(1)> defmodule Curiosum.Authentication do
...(1)>   alias Curiosum.Authentication.{ Admin, User }
...(1)> end
warning: unused alias Admin
  iex:2

warning: unused alias User
  iex:2

A warning can be skipped with :warn option set to false:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.{ Admin, User }, warn: false

However, this should raise a question if giving an alias without using its benefits is a good idea after all.

One more thing to note is that you can only use an alias in the same lexical scope. For example, alias inside of module is not valid outside of it:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication do
  alias Curiosum.Repo
  alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin

  def get_admins do
    Repo.all(Admin) # This is correct
  end
end

Repo.all(Admin) # Wrong lexical scope, an error will be raised!

One of the features of Module mechanism in Elixir is avoiding naming issues. As presented in the above examples, modules might grow to pretty long names and that's why aliases are used in Elixir very frequently. You should get used to them.

Import in Elixir

Aliases are great for shortening module names but what if we use functions from given module extensively and want to skip using module name part?

You can import all functions and macros from a given module with import/2 macro:

import Curiosum.Authentication.Admin

This directive imports all public functions and macros from given module except the ones starting with underscore, for example, __build__.

Although it's very handy, you probably don't need to import everything. In most cases, you only need a couple of functions.

You can import specific functions or macros with :only option:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin
import Admin, only: [changeset: 2]

changeset(Admin) # correct function call

You can also import everything except few of specific functions or macros with :except option:

alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin
import Admin, except: [changeset: 2]

changeset(Admin) # incorrect function call

Notice that you have to specify arity of functions or macro. This is due to how Elixir is designed. Functions with different arities are not the same.

Therefore you can't import all changeset functions at once:

import Admin, only: :changeset    # error will be raised
import Admin, only: [:changeset]  # error will be raised

You can, however, import only functions or macros at once:

import Admin, only: :functions
import Admin, only: :macros

Just like an alias/2 the import/2 directive is also lexically scoped:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication do
  alias Curiosum.Authentication.Admin
  import Admin, only: [changeset: 2]

  ...
end

changeset(Admin) # Wrong lexical scope, an error will be raised!

There is also :warn option in import, which is being used to silence warning generated when none of imported functions/macros are used:

import Admin, warn: false

Again, keep in mind that you should not use import when you don't need it and if you need only specific functions/macros, use :only option.

How about importing functions with the same name and arity from different modules?

alias Curiosum.Authentication.{ Admin, User }
import Admin
import User

changeset(%{})

Since both changeset/2 functions accept any arguments there will be ambiguous call conflict:

(CompileError) function changeset/1 imported from both Curiosum.Authentication.User and Curiosum.Authentication.Admin, call is ambiguous

This is worth remembering, and a big argument against importing all functions/macros at once. Keep it in mind!

Require in Elixir

Modules public methods are globally available. This is not true to macros.

Let's declare custom_unless/2 macro in Conditional module:

defmodule Conditional do
  defmacro custom_unless(clause, do: expression) do
    quote do
      if(!unquote(clause), do: unquote(expression))
    end
  end
end

Now, look at what happens when we use custom_unless/2 just like with public methods:

iex> Conditional.custom_unless 2 < 1, do: IO.puts "It works!"

** (CompileError) iex: you must require Conditional before invoking the macro Conditional.custom_unless/2

As you can see in the error message, we need to require Conditional module to use its macros. Why?

Macro function is being evaluated during compilation. If you want to use it, you need to compile it first. This is exactly what require/2 does.

In our example, we need to compile Conditional module first, and only then we can use custom_unless/2 macro:

iex> require Conditional
Conditional
iex> Conditional.custom_unless 2 < 1, do: IO.puts "It works!"
It works!
:ok

You can also pass :as option to require/2 which works exactly the same as in case of alias/2:

iex> require Conditional, as: Cond
Conditional
iex> Cond.custom_unless 2 < 1, do: IO.puts "It works!"
It works!
:ok

Notice that require/2 is different than alias/2, since alias/2 does not automatically compile given module and therefore we can't use its macros.

It's also different than import/2. In fact, import/2 uses require/2 in the background to compile module, but it also makes it possible to skip module name when invoking a function.

The lexical scope also applies to require/2 statement.

Use in Elixir

One of the main ideas behind Elixir is that it should be extensible. The use statement brings an extension point to modules.

Imagine that a couple of modules use the same dependencies, and share commons behavior. You can leverage use to perform some sort of set up on each of these modules.

The use macro allows you to inject any code in the current module.

Let's assume that we use Ecto library in our Curiosum.Authentication.* schemas. To provide a simple solution for common setup operations we can create Curiosum.Authentication.Schema:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication.Schema do
  defmacro __using__(_opts) do
    quote do
      use Ecto.Schema

      import Ecto
      import Ecto.Changeset
      import Ecto.Query

      def changeset(struct, params \\ %{}) do
        # assuming that changeset will perform same operations
      end
    end
  end
end

In the above code, we can see __using__/1 macro. The whole magic happens inside of it. Any code you put into __using__/1 will be injected and executed inside of modules that use it:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication.Admin do
  use Curiosum.Authentication.Schema
end

Thanks to use Curiosum.Authentication.Schema, the whole code inside of __using__ has been injected into Curiosum.Authentication.Admin module.

In the background use macro is being compiled into:

defmodule Curiosum.Authentication.Admin do
  require Curiosum.Authentication.Schema
  Curiosum.Authentication.Schema.__using__
end

The __using__/1 macro accepts an optional argument, which can be used inside of it as needed. We can observe that in Phoenix with Controllers and Views:

use CuriosumWeb, :controller

or

use CuriosumWeb, :view

Are there any risks involving use?

As you already know, we can put any code into __using__/1. When you use external libraries, you might not be sure what exactly happens behind the scenes.

Read the documentation carefully and take a look what's being done inside of __using__.

That's all for now, if you have any questions, let me know in comments below!